Monday, January 14, 2019

The College Student's Research Companion

Arlene R. Quaratiello with Jane Devine, The College Student's Research Companion: Finding, Evaluating, and Citing the Resources You Need to Succeed. Neal-Schuman, 2011. 183 pages. ISBN: 978-1-55570-729-3.

Arlene R. Quaratiello's The College Student's Research Companion is a good introduction to the research process. It helps the reader to pick a topic and narrow it to a researchable topic. Second, it provides information on different types of sources and where to find them. Third, it shows how to evaluate the resources the researcher finds. Fourth, it provides general information on searching databases. Then, in different chapters it covers searching the web, the online catalog, and periodical databases. Fifth, it provides instruction on how to use reference sources for your research. Last, it covers taking notes, plagiarizing, and citing your sources. The book is written in a user-friendly way that will be understandable to beginning college students. It would also be a useful guide for librarians teaching students how to do research.

Chapter one discusses developing a research plan. First, the student must select a topic if one is not assigned to her. The author recommends a topic that interests the student. Second, the topic must be narrowed to make it a researchable topic. The student at this time might write a preliminary thesis and preliminary research question. It will probably develop or change in the process of research.

Next, the student will want to develop a research plan. They will need to identify the type of resources they will need to satisfy their information need. Then they will need to know where and how they can access these resources. The author provides information about different types of sources: Web-based resources, book, periodical resources, and other resources. The student will need also to plan their time for doing the research. The author asserts, "The research process is time-consuming" (14).

The author in chapter two discusses a method for evaluating resources. She calls the method PACAC. It stands for Purpose, Authority, Currency, Accuracy, and Content. The first step in evaluating resources is discovering why it was produced. The second step is to answer the question, who wrote it? Why should the author be trusted? Do they have the credentials or experience to be considered a reliable source. A third step is to determine when it was published. The currency of an item is more important for the sciences and the medical disciplines than it is for the Humanities. The fourth step is to determine its accuracy. You will need to have a working knowledge of the topic to determine a source's accuracy. This knowledge can be acquired through reference sources. The final step is determining if the source meets the information need of the student. The student must ask, "Does it answer the main questions that you have?" (29).

Chapter three discusses the pros and cons of searching the web. There are different types of websites: commercial sites, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, government agencies, personal websites, country sites, and etc. It is important to evaluate websites by the PACAC method. The author also provides information on searching the web. Some of these tips are Boolean searching, advance searches, searching by subject directories. One of the problems of the web is that you never know if a site will be available the next day. A second problem is it is difficult to determine the author of the site since anyone can post on the web.

Chapter four covers searching databases generally. The author uses the example of online catalog to discuss the structure of databases. The author provides examples of different online records. She shows how a record for a book contains different fields: author, title, publisher, subject headings, etc. Another type of databases is a periodicals database. The database is made of thousands of records which includes different fields: article title, author, periodical title, subject headings or terms, etc. These fields are important because you can search these fields. Next, the author discusses searching these databases. These databases can be searched either by keywords of subject terms. An effective way to search with keywords is by boolean: AND, OR, NOT. OR broadens the search and AND or NOT narrows the search. The NOT is not used often. Combining AND, OR, NOT helps the searcher be more specific and get more relevant results. The problem with keyword searching is that the searcher can get a lot of results that are not relevant to their topic. The searcher can be more specific by doing field searching or subject searching. Databases use controlled vocabulary, so the student does not necessarily know what the terms are. An effective way to over come this is to select a few relevant results from keyword searching and see what subject terms are used for each article.

Following chapter four there are individual chapters for searching online catalogs and periodical databases. Chapter seven covers using reference resources. These sources are used for topic selection, background information, and to find out different facts. These sources include: Encyclopedias, both general and subject specific; dictionaries, sources to find statistical and geographic information; chronological information, biographical information, finding people and organizations, quotations, etc. Chapter eight discusses integrating sources into the paper. It provides information on quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. The next part discusses how to avoid plagiarism. The last part of the chapter explains how to cite your sources.

The College Student's Research Companion is a user-friendly guide to doing research in college. It provides information on the research process, going from determining your topic to finding resources to citing your sources. At the end of chapter questions are provided to apply the concepts taught in the chapter. The answers to the questions are in the back of the book. A brief citation style guide is included for MLA, Chicago, and APA. The book is short, easy to easy, and easy to understand. The authors tried to emphasize concepts since information sources change so rapidly. I have read this book multiple times and have used it to teach students how to do research.

Wednesday, January 9, 2019

Reading Well, the Great Books, and the Good Life

Prior, Karen Swallow. On Reading Well: Finding the Good Life through Great Books. Brazos Press, 2018. 267 pages. ISBN: 978-1-58743-396-2.

Karen Prior, Professor of English at Liberty University and author of Booked: Literature in the Soul of Me, in On Reading Well: Finding the Good Life through Great Books show how reading great books well can build character. She uses classic works of literature to examine twelve virtues: prudence, temperance, justice, courage, faith, hope, love, chastity, diligence, patience, kindness, and humility, and she also discusses the corresponding vices. Some of the authors discussed in the book are Henry Fielding, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Charles Dickens, Mark Twain, Jane Austen and others. The author provides insight from authors of virtue ethics: Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Alasdair Mcintyre, and Josef Pieper. Prior has written an excellent book that shows how reading well the Great Books can cultivate character.

The author has been shaped by great literature. She asserts, "by reading about all kinds of characters created by all kinds of authors, I learned how to be the person God created me to be" (14). She thinks characters in literature can serve as models of virtue and vice. She encourages the reader not only to read widely, but to read well; "one must read virtuously" (15). She defines virtue as "excellence". Reading well, she says, "is in itself, an act of virtue or excellence, and it is also a habit that cultivates more virtue in return" (15). Virtue is presented in literature through the actions of its characters. In addition, it provides opportunities for the reader to practice the actual virtues. Reading virtuously means, "first reading closely, being faithful to both text and context, interpreting accurately and insightfully" (15). Reading virtuously cultivates virtue in the reader. Prior asserts, "The attentiveness necessary for deep reading (the kind of reading we practice in reading literary works as opposed to skimming news stories or reading instructions) requires patience. The skills of interpretation and evaluation requires prudence" (15). Even setting time aside for reading requires discipline. Reading well requires that we pay attention to the "words on the page."

To read well, we need to enjoy our reading. That is why she encourages "reading promiscuously." Pleasure makes it more likely that we will read. Those who enjoy reading will read which will increase their skills of reading which will increase their enjoyment from reading which will increase their reading. That is mentioned in Trelease's How to Read Aloud Handbook. She says it is best to put down the book that you are agonizing to read, and to pick up a book you will enjoy. She thinks that different people will enjoy different types of books.On the other hand, "the greatest pleasures are those born of labor and investment" (16-17). She does say that reading well requires that the book be read for itself, and not for some lesson it teaches. She quotes from C. S. Lewis about receiving a work versus using it. She makes a good point that literature must be read for both form and content or the reader needs to pay attention to both. The author states, "The virtue or excellence of literature cannot be understood apart from its form. To read literature virtuously requires attention to that form, whether the form be that of a poem, a novel, a short story, or a play. To attend to the form of a work is by its very nature an aesthetic experience" (19). There is a big difference in reading the Cliff Notes of a novel and the novel itself. Reading aesthetically is more a formative than an informative experience. Through the act of reading literature "invites the reader to participate in the experience aesthetically, not merely intellectually"(21).

In one chapter she discusses diligence through an analysis of The Pilgrim Progress. Prior uses Aristotle's doctrine of the mean to discuss this virtue and other virtues in other chapters and its corresponding vices. Diligence represents the mean between "the extreme of excess and their extreme of deficiency" (179). She shows how a major theme of Bunyan's classic work is sanctification. To grow in holiness requires diligence. In another chapter she discusses patience by examining Jane Austen's Persuasion. She shows that patience means more than waiting, but a willingness to suffer. Another virtue examined is temperance by analyzing Henry Fielding's The History of Tom Jones. She states that prudence is the "mother of the three other cardinal virtues" (34). Prudence is choosing right from wrong in everyday life. In Tom Jones she shows how authors use satire and in Pilgrim's Progress, symbolism.

Prior, On Reading Well, has written a book that in enjoyable to read, teaches the reader how to read well, examples of how to read classic texts, and how classic works can cultivate virtue in the reader. It was surprising how much she knew about philosophy and virtue ethics. She skillfully intertwines virtue ethics with literature. This book is highly recommended. 

Friday, January 4, 2019

A Student's Guide to Library Research

Mary W. George, The Elements of Library Research: What Every Student Needs to Know. Princeton University Press, 2008. ISBN: 978-0-691-13150-4. 201 pages.

Mary W. George, head of reference and senior reference librarian at Princeton University Library, provides a handy guide on the library research process. The author provides instruction on choosing a topic, creating research questions, developing a research plan, searching the literature, evaluating sources, developing a thesis, and much more. The book is easy to read and the reader recognize that the author has a good grasp on the process on producing some type of research product. She wrote this book because for several years she saw college students struggle with research assignments. She shows how we have information needs all the time and we do research to find answers. She shows how doing academic research is similar to the practical research that we do on a daily basis.

George defines a research project "as any task that requires, or would benefit from factual information or opinions you do not already have" (15). She divides the research process into nine stages: 1. choosing a topic, 2. engaging your imagination, 3. creating research questions pertaining to your topic, 4. developing a research plan, 5. using reference tools and searching databases, 6. retrieving sources, 7. evaluating your sources in relation to your research question, 8. having an insight from reflecting on your sources, 9. creating a thesis from your insight. This last step will lead to creating an outline and developing an argument based on your thesis. When she discusses these different steps she provides detailed information on how to accomplish the task. I will provide some examples.

She give tips on developing a topic. Asks others about possible topics. Read different general sources about possible topics. Browse sources in your course and the library. Examine primary sources.

An important resource that she introduces early and discusses throughout the research process is a research log. On the right side, you can use like a research diary, "making entries with the date and place where I did something related to my research--whether thinking, brainstorming with friends, conferring with my instructor, searching a database, browsing in the library stacks, or any other activity. I write down a phrase about what I did or read" (45). On the left side, she lists ideas, "alternate points of view," the author and title of any interesting book I turn up, call numbers she finds searching in the catalog, new questions she discovers, and so on. She keeps this research log handy and uses it throughout the research process. She finds it to be a handy tool.

The author provides many helpful hints on discovering sources. Browsing the shelves around the titles that you are looking for on the shelves. Using general and subject encyclopedias and looking at the sources they list. Looking at the footnotes or bibliography of books you examine. Examining the bibliography and notes of the articles you examine.

The author provides information on different research tools and different search strategies for searching the databases. The book includes five appendices: 1. good habits, hints, and habits to avoid. 2. Certain nuggets she provides throughout the book. 3. Research timelines. 4. Questions to ask your instructor. 5. Research appointment worksheet.

Mary George in her book, The Elements of Library Research, has provided a handy, easy to follow guide through the research process. The reader can recognize that she has much experience in doing research and guiding others to do research. Any student that picks up this book will make an excellent investment in a guide that will be quite useful for not only a immediate research projects, but future ones too!

Wednesday, January 2, 2019

How to Read Theology

Uche Anizor, How to Read Theology: Engaging Doctrine Critically and Charitably. Baker Academic, 2018. ISBN: 978-0-8010-4975-0, 182 pages.

Anizor's book is a small handbook on reading theology. In addition, it teaches the reader how to read critically and charitably. This instruction can be applied to other disciplines besides theology. Uche Anizor is assosiate professor of biblical and theological studies at Talbot School of Theology, Biola University. How to Read Theology is intended to be a "primer to theological texts that introduces readers to the 'behind the scenes' happenings in those texts, helping them to better grasp the meaning of what exactly they are reading when they are reading theology" (xiv). The book is also intended to help the reader to evaluate different theologies both critically and charitably.

The book is divided into two parts. Part one discusses reading charitably. Chapter one discusses different enemies to reading charitably: pride, suspicion, favoritism, impatience. The author states  that his students and others "face several barriers to understanding and assessing theologies well" (5). Some of these deals with reading skills; others have to do with attitude. The author thinks both are required. The author uses Alan Jacobs, A Theology of Reading as a major source. That book's major theme is how can we obey the command of loving our neighbor when we read. To read charitably is to read with openness to the author. It is to seek to understand before critically evaluating the author. Chapter two discusses the "contextual dimensions of theological reading": "historical-cultural context," "ecclesial or churchly context," and "polemical context." The author thinks an understanding of the author's background and theology will better equip the reader to interpret the work charitably.

Part 2 seeks to help the reader to develop critical reading skills. Chapter three discusses different ways scripture is used in different theologies. Chapter four analyzes the relationship between theology and tradition. There are four categories of tradition considered: creeds, confessions, major teachers of the Church, and other teachers of the church. In addition, he examines different types of theological genres: conservative, critical, exc. Chapter five examines the relationship between theology and reason. He asserts, "Christian theology is not exempt from the demand to be rational" (123). The final chapter discusses theology and experience. What is the relationship between the two? How much weight should be give to personal experience in a theology?

Anizor's How to Read Theology is a good introduction on how to read theology. It is well-written and easy to understand. It seems to be balanced and not overly bias, but is fair to the different views of theology. The part of the book that discusses reading charitably is especially recommended.  

Thursday, December 20, 2018

Doing Theological Research

Kibbe, Michael. From Topic to Thesis: A Guide to Theological Research. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2016, pp. 152.

It is good to think of research and writing as a process. Sometimes, professors assign a research paper and the emphasis is on it as a product. On such and such you will deliver this research paper (product) to me. Students struggle on how to get from the assignment to the finished product. Michael Kibbe's From Topic to Thesis: A Guide to Theological Research is a useful resource that can guide the student through the different steps of the process: picking a topic, narrowing a topic, finding resources, creating a thesis statement, and writing the paper.

Kibbe introduces his guide in an introduction. He discusses the process of research. The process should take you from topic to thesis, not topic to paper. Kibbe asserts, "It is a simple book designed to take you step by step from a research topic to a research thesis" (14). He suggests that the student should not move topic to a paper. He notes, "A research paper is not built around a topic, but a thesis" (15). Next, he provides a short history of theological research. He describes theological research as taking part in a conversation. It is not a one-person event. He thinks theological research is like any other research, but it is also not like any other research. It seems to be that certain principles of research can be applies across discipline, but each discipline has its own specificity. Kibbe states, "Every research process has a preparation component, a field component and an analysis component" (21). He makes a key point that the "goal of your research is new knowledge for you. You, and you only. No one else" (24). He ends the introduction by defining key terms: theological, primary sources, secondary sources, tertiary sources, and bibliography.

The main part of this book is "about the process of moving from topic (assignment) to thesis (argument)" (43). This process is divided into five steps. Each chapter discusses one of the steps, so there is a chapter for each step of the process.

Chapter one discusses finding direction. Kibbe provides keys to finding direction. First, do not begin your paper already knowing what you are "going to argue." Second, "research takes time." The third and fourth keys go together: do not depend on secondary sources in the beginning; instead, depend on primary and tertiary sources.

Chapter two discusses gathering sources. First, do not "spend too much time on any one source" (56). In the beginning you are skimming your sources to see if they will be relevant to your research project. Second, you need to distinguish between "redirecting and getting distracted." Third, not every source you encounter will be "well written." His last key argues that "research is first and foremost about primary sources" (57).

Chapter three discusses understanding issues. He states, "Your goal in this next phase is to learn as much as you can from your sources about the specific issues involved with your topic" (65). The first key is about reading your sources efficiently. Second, you must "allow yourself large time segments" for doing your work. In other words, you cannot be doing it in 15 minute time allotments. Third, your reading has a specific purpose: you are reading the source for information applicable to your thesis or paper. Fourth, "the specificity of your sources will determine the specificity of your topic" (69).The Fifth key is that research is not a linear process because it requires circling back at different times in the process.

Chapter four discusses entering into the discussion. The important point here is on the student speaking into the conversation or speaking into the discussion with his own argument. He needs to have been listening to the conversation before he is ready to speak. First, the student needs to "have something to contribute to the conversation." Second, he must speak at the appropriate time. Third, he needs to know how to communicate or speak his thesis that "fits into the discussion."

The final chapter discusses establishing a position. First, he states that the thesis is the "heart" of the paper. He asserts, "Every single word, phrase and paragraph in your paper should contribute to your thesis" (87). Second, do not start "writing your paper too soon" (88). He thinks the research should "mold the thesis" and the thesis should "mold the paper." Third, the paper should enter into a conversation already occurring about your "chosen topic."

After the final chapter Kibbe provides six appendices on the following topics: 1) things a student should never do in a paper; 2) helpful theological research tools; 3) scholarly resources; 4) How to use the ATLA religion database; 5) How to download and use Zotero bibliography; and a timeline for papers.

From Topic to Thesis is a short guide on doing theological research. It is well written and easy to read. One might want to start with the thesis earlier in the process than this guide, depending what one is doing research: theology, Biblical studies, Church history, and etc. Personally, I prefer having at least a preliminary thesis early in the process. This book is recommended for all those beginning theological research and those who need a refresher.   

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

Message in the Bottle Part 2

Percy, Walker. "The Message in the Bottle" in The Message in the Bottle: How Queer Man Is, How Queer Language Is, And What One Has To Do With the Other. New York: Picador.

Island news is something the islanders can figure out on their own; news from across the sea can only be delivered by a divine messenger. Percy asserts, "It is news, however, this news from across the seas, and it is as a piece of news that it must be evaluated. Faith is the organ of the historical, says Kierkegaard" (144). Percy contrasts the different conceptions of faith as defined by Kierkegaard and Thomas Aquinas: Aquinas states, "The act of faith consists essentially in knowledge and there we find its formal or specific perfection." Aquinas is saying that faith resides in the intellect. Arvin Vos states that Aquinas's view of faith is that faith is an act of the intellect, for its goal is truth. However, the intellect is moved to this act "under the impetus of the will moving it to assent." In contrast, Kierkegaard argues, "Faith is not a form of knowledge; for all knowledge is either knowledge of the eternal, excluding the temporal and the historical as indifferent, or it is pure historical knowledge. No knowledge can have for its object the absurdity that the eternal is the historical." Stephen Evans asserts, that according to Kierkegaard, "Christian faith is understood to be a passion, a new or higher 'second' form of immediacy, what Kierkegaard sometimes calls an 'immediacy after reflection,' meaning that it is not simply a natural or spontaneous form of immediacy but a quality that must be developed, and that the individual has some role in developing."

Kierkegaard seems to be stressing that faith is a movement of the heart and will. It is not mere intellectual assent. Evans states that Aquinas's concept is a faith beyond reason. In describing Kierkegaard's view of faith, he says it is both above reason and against reason. Percy sides with Aquinas in believing that faith is knowledge, and he thinks Kierkegaard is wrong in setting up an "antinomy of faith versus reason." He argues that island news and news from across the sea "would correspond roughly with the two knowledges of Saint Thomas: (1) scientific knowledge, in which assent is by reason, (2) knowledge of faith, in which scientific knowledge and assent are undertaken scientifically" (107). Scientific knowledge for medievals is not restricted to modern day science, but all forms of knowledge. Percy wants to argue with Aquinas and the Catholic tradition that faith does not contradict reason. Percy thinks Kierkegaard sees faith as the "Absolute Paradox" and that embracing it is "setting aside reason." 

The castaway sees himself in a predicament in which island news will not help him. Because he knows that island news does not address his situation, he is open to a message from across the seas. Westkarp explains Percy's view on faith as knowledge: "Faith is news 'from across the seas' is, according to Percy, not Kierkegaard's embrace of the Absolute Paradox, not credo quia absurdem est, but a knowledge in which with Thomas Aquinas scientific knowledge and assent are undertaken simultaneously. . . Percy accepts Kierkegaard's definition of faith as 'the organ of the historical' but adds to it Aquinas's understanding of faith as a special kind of knowledge 'in which scientific knowledge [assent achieved by reason] and assent are undertaken simultaneously,' . . . combining in a magnificent way Kierkegaard's and Aquinas's thoughts about faith." 

Percy says that faith must be communicated to the hearer. For faith comes by hearing the message. Percy asserts, "Faith comes from God, but is also comes from hearing. It is a piece of news and there is a news bearer. But why should we believe a news bearer?" (146). Percy draws from Kierkegaard's distinction between an apostle and a genius. A genius would communicate island news, but an apostle would deliver news from across the seas. Westkarp states, "It is characteristic that Percy, in 'The Message in the Bottle,' presents his view of the revelation in a paradoxical form, since the scientist-philosopher-artist would expect the message about salvation to be presented as knowledge sub specie aeternitatis. But Percy shows that precisely the opposite is true, 'that salvation comes by hearing, by a piece of news, and not through knowledge sub specie aeternitatis.

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

Meaning and Authenticity

Braman, Brian J. Meaning and Authenticity: Bernard Lonergan and Charles Taylor on the Drama of Authentic Human Existence. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008.

Braman acknowledges that the quest for authenticity began among the new left in the 1960s. However, Bramas asserts, "This quest for authentic human existence does not, however, just spring up with the radical left of the 1960s" (3). It has roots in the 18th century with Rousseau and John Locke. The jargon of "self-fulfillment, self-actualization, self-realization, and authenticity is now common linguistic currency in contemporary culture" (4). It does have its critics: Christopher Lasch speaks of the quest for authenticity as another form of narcissism. Other critics are Alan Bloom, Robert Bellah and Theodor Adorno. Braman accepts the criticisms of these authors, but in "spite of the ongoing criticism, however, the idea of human authenticity persists" (6). Like the argument of Charles Taylor in A Secular Age, Braman argues for a middle position between "uncritical acceptance" and "wholesale condemnation of the idea of authenticity" (6). Braman sets out to just this in his book, Meaning and Authenticity by putting two Canadian thinkers in Conversation, the Jesuit philosopher and theologian Bernard Lonergan and the Catholic philosopher and public intellectual, Charles Taylor.

Before beginning this conversation, he introduces the topic of authenticity by discussing some of Heidegger's key ideas in chapter one. Although Rousseau and Herder are influential in the history of "self-determining freedom," Braman thinks that Martin Heiddegger is the "most instrumental in making this question of human authenticity prominent within and without philosophical circles" (4). For Heidegger, authenticity has to do with one's historicity and one's being-to death. This chapter provides detailed descriptions of key terms used by Heidegger: dasein, care, thrownness, everydayness, fallenness, guilt, etc. Braman appreciates Heiddegger's ideas, but he believes it falls short: "in the end, Heidegger's position closes off the possibility of transcendence and leaves death as the only horizon" (73). Both Taylor and Lonergan will argue for the transcendence that Braman thinks is important.

Chapters two and three provide Taylor's and Lonergan's accounts of authenticity. Taylor gives us a "genealogical rehabilitation of what is best and viable in modernity's approach to human authenticity" (7). Taylor seeks to discover the moral sources of the self. Taylor emphasizes the "facticity" of our lives and that one's "identity is always constructed linguistically, socially, and historically" (34). We are engaged agents which means that we "find ourselves (individually as well as culturally) within a lived background of past judgments" (37). Heidegger's view of authenticity related it to the horizon of death, Taylor's account relates it to the life of fullness. Taylor's account relates authenticity to higher goods, constitutive goods, and hyper goods. Taylor even talks about how nature and art can act as an epiphany and  be considered a moral source. Taylor asserts, "The central nature of epiphany is not just one's praxis, but also the intimate transactions that take place between one's self and one's world" (45).

Chapter three covers Bernard Lonergan's hermeneutical and existential account of authenticity. Authenticity for Lonergan is "self-transcendence, and self-transcendence involves intellectual, moral, and religious conversion. This path to authenticity is not just for the elite, but for everyone. This conversion is not a one-time experience, but continues life-long. Lonergan states, "Authenticity is a lifelong commitment, both individually and culturally, to the imperatives to be attentive, reasonable, intelligent, and responsible" (48).

Chapter four compares Taylor's account of authenticity with Lonergan's account. Braman compares the two through exploring three themes: art, cognitional theory, and the human good. Braman thinks the two share much in common: "Lonergan and Taylor have shown that human existence and human understanding are historically dynamic and complex relationship between the person and culture. Both stress the historicity of the human subject, and both dismantle Cartesian certitude and the Kantian transcendental ego. Lonergan and Taylor have de-centered the subject by showing to what degree our self-understanding is conditioned from above downwards by the facticity of human existence. Both have articulated, in response to postmodernism's critique of what Heidegger called 'humanism,' how indeed the person is not truncated, neglected, or immanentist, but existential, and each has done so from a particular but complementary viewpoint" (74). Braman definitely appreciates both thinkers, but Lonergan's view is probably more like his own because in the last part of the chapter is a sectioned called: "Lonergan Beyond Taylor" (95). The author successfully shows the how bot Taylor and Lonergan have provided ways to retrieve authenticity in an acceptable way. He does think that Lonergan's account might add certain depth to Taylor's account with his concept of self-transcendence.

Braman has shown that the quest for authenticity can be retrieved in a way that is not narcissistic. He has also shown how Taylor and Lonergan"s ideas on authenticity is complementary. The introduction to the book by reviewing key ideas of Heidegger is helpful to those not familiar, and Heidegger was an important author since both Taylor and Lonergan have been influenced by Heidderger and interact with his in their own ideas. The book is readable and makes these philosophers understandable to the non-specialist.

Source: Book review by Randall S. Rosenberg